The Village Independent Democrats are a reform democratic club founded in 1956. In 2023, the club donated their archives to Village Preservation. This collection includes much of the club’s archives from their first two decades, 1955 to 1969. The collection chronicles the club’s founding out of the Adlai Stevenson Presidential campaign, their successful efforts to remove the grip of the Tammany Hall Tawana Club from control of local democratic politics, their involvement in the civil rights and other social justice movements, and their support for efforts to preserve the neighborhood, especially from Robert Moses’ urban renewal and highway construction plans. Significant figures whose activities and correspondences are chronicled here include Eleanor Roosevelt, Ed Koch, Jane Jacobs, Robert Wagner, and Carol Greitzer.

Table of Contents

Civil Rights Movement

This section highlights documents related to the Civil Rights Movement, including work done by the Village Independent Democrats and correspondence with other organizations.

Letter from Committee to Defend Martin Luther King Jr., April, 1960. View PDF.
This letter is requesting support in a petition against Woolworth’s for refusal to give equal service to Black students in the South. Signed by Bernard Lee, Harry Belafonte, A. Philip Randolp and Curtis Ganz.

Series of letters from Benjamin Franklin Reform Democratic Club regarding Black Southern Voters, 1962. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter to Mr. Geller of VID regarding Southern voter registration drive. 
  • Page 2: Copy of Letter sent to Martin Luther King Jr., and John Brooks about Southern voter registration drive 
  • Page 3: Copy of Letter sent to Robert F. Kennedy about Southern voter registration drive.

Village Independent Democrats’ Statements on Integration, 1963. View PDF.
Two statements from the Village Independent Democrats supporting integration in Greenwich Village.

NAACP and VID Report of Real Estate Agents Testing Program, 1964. View PDF.
A report created Jointly by the NAACP Housing Committee and Village Independent Democrats Civil Rights Sub-Committee on Housing. This report tested and analyzed the extent to which housing discrimination existed in Greenwich Village.

Village Independent Democrats press release about collecting donations to give to civil rights workers  who are participating in the Council of Federated Organizations Mississippi Project, 1964. View PDF.

Images Taken at food drive to support Council of Federated Organizations Mississippi Project, 1964

  • (top to bottom) Ed Gold, Ed Koch, Sarah Schoenkopf, Mary Jean, and Miriam Bockman, 1964. View JPG.
  • (l. to r.) Sarah Schoenkopf and  Mary Jean Chilcote 1964. View JPG.

Undated Images, 1950s and 1960s 

Carol Greitzer making announcement on bus, no date. View larger image as JPG

Carol Greitzer was a founding member of the Village Independent Democrats in 1956, and by 1960 had become President of the Club. In 1961, she and running mate James Lanigan successfully beat Tammany Hall candidate Carmine DeSapio for leadership of the 1st Assembly District South. She would later go on to run for City Council in 1969, and after winning the election remained a member of City Council until 1991. Preservation was always at the forefront of her agenda, she was heavily involved in the organizing related to removing traffic from Washington Square Park, and worked to transform the Jefferson Market Courthouse into a library. This image is likely taken on  a campaign bus.

Two images taken at same event, no date

  • (l. to r.) Charles McGuiness, Mitch (Pearlnoth) Rein, unidentified figure, Carol Greitzer, Larry Maxwell, Helen Iannello. View JPG.
  • (l. to r.) unidentified man, Ed Koch, Mitch (Pearlnoth) Rein, Carol Greitzer, Larry Maxwell, and another unidentified figure. View JPG.

(l. to r.) George Delaney, Carol Greitzer, unidentified figure, additional unidentified figure, no date. View JPG.

Images of James Lanigan, Rudolph Castore and Carol Greitzer, no date

  • Contact Sheet: View JPG.
  • Image 1: (l. to r.)  Rudolph Castore, James Lanigan, Carol Greitzer, and an unidentified figure. View JPG.  
  • Image 2: (l. to r.) Rudolph Castore, James Lanigan, Carol Greitzer, and an unidentified figure. View JPG.
  • Image 3, taken outside: (l. to. r) James Lanigan, Rudolph Castor, an unidentified figure, and Carol Greitzer. View as JPG.

(l. to r.) Stanley Geller, Carol Greitzer and an unidentified figure, no date. View JPG.


Newspaper Clippings. View PDF.
Village Voice articles from December 1955 documenting the “Battle over Washington Square,” which discussed a possible highway through or tunnel under the park, and an option proposed by Shirley Hayes to close all traffic in the park.


Invitation to Cocktail Party on February 26, 1956 from Stevenson Democratic Club & Roosevelt Reform Democrats. View PDF.

“Around the Local Clubs” Notice of formation of Village Independent Democrats, November 13, 1956 from New York Young Democratic Club News. View PDF.
VID voted to form out of the Village Committee for Stevenson-Kefauver-Wagner

1956 Newspaper Clippings. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Heard Around City Hall, Aldai’s progress, Stevenson Committee, Penthouse Party 
  • Page 2: Clippings regarding Aldai Stevensons Election, including ad for volunteers
  • Page 3: Stevenson For President Dinner honoring Eleanor Roosevelt 
  • Page 4: Stevenson For President Committee Photograph 
  • Page 5: Villager article from august 2nd, about a 250 person Dinner with Eleanor Roosevelt, July New York Post article “In the Back Rooms” regarding Carmine DeSapio
  • Page 6: Articles about Stevenson democratic clubs and support from Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Page 7: Stevenson for President political ads and articles about organization efforts
  • Page 8: Article about Dems Voting for Ike in 1952 planning to switch back 
  • Page 9-13: Pro Stevenson articles and ads, and information about work being done by Village-Chelsea stevenson for President Committee 
  • Page 14: Note and Article about formation of Village Independent Democrats 
  • Page 15: December 1956 Articles about Wagner Re-election and formation of Village Independent Democrats 
  • Page 16: Articles about Newly Formed VIllage Independent Democrats 
Pro Herman Greitzer and Gwenn Worth Flyer. View more as PDF.


The Village Independent Democrats campaigned for Gwenn Worth and Herman Greitzer to unseat Carmine DeSapio as leader of 1st Assembly District. DeSapio was a democrat from Tammany Hall and was the incumbent leader of the district. DeSapio was also considered the last boss of Tammany Hall. 

June 5, 1957 Pre-Election Canvas Information and Instructions. View PDF.

  • Page 1-4: Instructions for Captains in Pre-Election Canvas against DeSapio 
  • Page 5-8: Additional Instructions for Captains and Canvassers

Ballots for September 10, 1957 Election, for the 32nd & 25th Election District of the 1st Assembly District. View PDF.

Flyers and information in support of Herman Greitzer and Glenn Worth for District Leader positions against Carmine DeSapio and Tammany Hall. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Election Day Reminder Posters
  • Page 2-3: You Can be the Life of Your Party VID Brochure, encouraging people to for Greitzer and Worth instead of Tammany candidate Carmine DeSapio in the 1st Assembly District South 
  • Page 4: Pro Greitzer and Worth flyer featuring New York Times article about bad tactics of DeSapio
  • Page 5: Pro Greitzer and Worth flyer including photo of duo 

Information Related to Carmine DeSapio & Election in 1st Assembly District South, 1957. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Clippings regarding the Village Independent Democrats battle against DeSapio edited into poster
  • Page 2-3: Testimony given by DeSapio on 11/17/52 to the NY State Crime Commission  
  • Page 4-5: Pages 2 & 4 of Conversation Between DeSapio and Wallers. Note: Pages are missing. 
Village Voice flyer with DeSapio related clippings. View more DeSapio election material as PDF

Signed letter from Eleanor Roosevelt from March 8th, 1957. View PDF.

  • Regarding not being able to attend event on March 15th

“Article: Policy Towards Political Patronage”, 1957. View PDF.

  • Set of rules created by the Village Independent Democrats to avoid patronage jobs

1957 Newspaper Clippings. View PDF.

  • Page 1: January & February clippings regarding VID meetings, Morris Ernst speaks at VID, Polio Vaccination
  • Page 2-3: Villager article about Lower Manhattan Expressway
  • Page 4: Growth of VID, Polio Vaccine and Ravi Shankar concert at VID
  • Page 5: Reform organizations fighting Tammany, polio vaccine, Ravi Shankar concert, 
  • Page 6: PS 8 Closing, Housing in the Village
  • Page 7: Roadway through the square
  • Page 8-13: Saving Washington Square park from Roadway, Closing House of detention, Title I redevelopment 
  • Page 14: Proposed NYU Loeb Student Center 
  • Page 15-17: Closing of PS 3, and proposed Junior High School
  • Page 18: Pay Increases for Justices
  • Page 19: Ravi Shankar concert and former Police commissioner speaking to VID
  • Page 20: Title I Slum Clearance 
  • Page 21: Ex -Police Commissioner to aid VID, growth of Stevenson inspired volunteer Democratic groups 
  • Page 22: Ravi Shankar performance 
  • Page 23: Assemblyman Kelly, Village Rent Clinic, VID Circus, NY Post in the Backrooms 
  • Page 24: DeSapio, NYU Dean and Ex Judge Join VID Advisory Board 
  • Page 25-31: articles about the VID runs Greitzer and Worth in election against DeSapio
  • Page 32: Stop traffic from Washington Square, Tammany Hall and DeSapio’s election in 1st AD
  • Page 33: DeSapio-Greitzer Debate, Greitzer-Worth Campaign against DeSapio
  • Page 34-35: Citizen Group for DeSapio Formed, South more democratic than NYC Greitzer article, Richard Kuh resigns as president of Village Independent Democrat 
  • Page 36-38: Kuh resigns as President of VID, NY Young Democratic Club withdraw Support for VID candidate Herman Greitzer, Charles McGuiness to be VID President, ad for Mystery Cruise Event Hosted by the Village Independent Democrats, Greitzer running against Tammany Candidate
  • Page 39: Event advertisements
  • Page 40-41: Voting machines, DA Frank Hogan’s assistants resign to run for office, NY Young Dems. vote for endorsement in Gretizer v. DeSapio Election 
  • Page 42: Housing Bribery report with prediction for DeSapio v. Greitzer election
  • Page 43-47: Update on DeSapio v. Greitzer election, and other primary contests against Tammany Leaders
“You Can be the Life of Your Party” pro Greitzer and Worth flyer, view entire flyer as PDF
  • Page 48: Ex. Truman Aides against DeSapio 
  • Page 49: Political Whispers Section of the New York Mirror, including comment about Membership dues for VID
  • Page 50: Fraud in election for Brooklyn Borough President 
  • Page 51: DeSapio instituting direct election of leaders
  • Page 52: Ex. Truman Press Chief joins VID, DeSapio accepts debate against Greizer 
  • Page 53-64: Governor Harriman supports DeSapio, DeSapio announces re-election campaign, Pro-Despio Articles and Flyers, Pro Tammany Articles
  • Page 65-66: Pro Greitzer and Worth flyer 
  • Page 67: DeSapio Greitzer debate, and Greitzer calls to clean up democratic party 
  • Page 68-69: Information and advertisements for upcoming elections
  • Page 70: Pro DeSapio articles, Greitzer requests DeSapio to stop using leftist title to describe him
  • Page 71: DeSapio & Greitzer debate canceled, Village Independent Democrats call for additional 
  • Page 72: Voter turnout forecast, unfair tactics in election
  • Page 73: Election for New York State Governor, Tammany pushing DeSapio to fight reform clubs 
  • Page 74-76: Primary races on ballot
  • Page 77: DeSapio wins and results from other primaries, Greitzer and Worth Communist charges
  • Page 78-79: Election results, DeSapio wins by 1,702 Votes
  • Page 80: Curtis Roosevelt joins VID Board, DeSapio invites Democratic County Committeemen to join Tamawa Club 
  • Page 81-83: “Washington Square”, October 2, Villager Article by Henry H. Curran about proposed roadway through Washington Square Park  

1957 Meeting Notes

1957 Committee Information & Meeting Notes. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 10/14/57 VID Community Affairs Committee Initial Program Report, with information on Washington Square Roadway, Village Public Schools, Village Improvement, Mothers Interest Group, Tenant’s information, Resident Information Service 
  • Page 2-3: 10/23/57 Membership Meeting Notes with information on budget, halloween party, Greitzer campaign, new members and guest speakers
  • Page 4: 10/28/57 Executive Committee Meeting Notes with information about budget deficit, VID polio vaccination efforts, insurance coverage for mothers and children, newsletter, bank loan, possible speakers for special events, 
  • Page 5-6: 11/11/57 Executive Committee notes including information budget deficit, membership, events, community problems, event with Eleanor Roosevelt, constitutional amendments and executive committee vacancies
  • Page 7-11: 11/28/57 Meeting Notes including information on membership renewals, dutch supper party, house committee, summary of meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt, 
  • Page 12: 11/20/57 Meeting Notes information on community relations, campaign, social, public relations, legal, membership and guest speakers
  • Page 12-16: 12/2/57 Meeting Minutes including information on leases, Social dutch supper event, house committee, meeting with GVA about housing in the Village, rent, increasing membership and lowering quorum 
  • Page 17-18: Undated Meeting notes, includes information about moving, upcoming membership meeting. Note: Pages are missing.


1958 Village Independent Democrat Invitations & Flyers. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Invitation to Greenwich Village Spring Ball Presented by Village Independent Democrats 
  • Page 2-3: Here’s the VID Story Flyer, including VID endorsed politicians 
  • Page 4-5: “You or DeSapio” VID Flyer, encourages support of Greitzer and Worth in August 12th election Primary for New York State committee

1958 Meeting Notes

1958 Meeting Notes. View PDF.

  • Page 1-8: 7/28 Executive Committee Meeting Notes- Greitzer on legal actions, Helen Lawler to throw Rep. party off ballot, fundraising boat ride, costs for campaign literature,  further fundraising ideas, mailings, membership announcements, sending delegates to Tilden Club, Finletter favored, amendments made to VID constitution 
  • Page 9-12:  8/5 Executive Committee Meeting Notes- financial reports, delegation of funds, club to debate advisement of Senator candidates, what help can be give to forthcoming election, elections for treasurer, 
  • Page 13: 8/18 Executive Meeting Notes- people present, discussion of expected voting percents, and fundraising ideas
  • Page 14-28:  8/20 Membership Meeting Notes- meeting attendance list, voting to enter primaries, members are asked to “get tough”, 940 signatures from ADA forum, DeSapio on Washington Square,  election results based on reports from the “Villager”,  elected Treasurer, vacancies in executive committee elected, listing of new executive committee members, Washington Square park, Birth Control use in public hospitals, executive committee to set a date for dance, suggested starting a journal and sell spots for ads and other ideas to get more publicity tabled for next meeting.
  • Page 29-32: 9/8 Executive Committee Meeting Notes- Roll call, Talks on upcoming elections, Akers can’t ask VID for help without consulting Democrats first, seeking liberal democrat from this district for election, registration campaign, VID to recommend democrat candidates, list of possible candidates to receive support, and endorsing democratic candidates to judicial officers 
  • Page 33-39: 9/10 Membership Meeting Notes- Membership roll taken, VID financials, set to endorse candidate for Housing, taking stock of candidates to endorse
  • Page 39-42: 9/17 Executive Meeting Notes- Mailing and membership drives, VID can withdraw support of candidates if they do not include VID programs into campaign, Passannante would not say if he wanted VID support, planning for meeting at the end of October, Treasurer’s report detailing funding and balances, primaries report 30% of VID, 
  • Page 43-44: 9/22 Executive Meeting Notes- Campaign committee to talk to Gibson before October 17th, investigate the airplane trip, expected to gross $263, sell tickets to the dance to raise funds, 
  • Page 48-51: 9/29 Executive Meeting Notes – Justice of Municipal Court nominated, trip planning, fundraising dance, Friday night event raised $120, mass mailings to approx 1800 people to cost about $50 to encourage them to join Democratic party, need more voters or risk DeSapio winning again, Passannante to appoint liaison person, registration drive to register people to vote, Koenig offered use of mailing machine, fundraising event, canada dry soda machine to be fixed, new typewriter, try to assist in organization of Murray Hill group, to set agenda to address vacancies, proposal for airplane committee to be submitted to chairman, 
  • Page 52-59: 10/2 Membership Meeting- set agenda to endorse candidate for state senate Mitchell, to talk on bigotry and discrimination, stressing importance of Dems to get control of Senate, inspire citizens to get out and campaign- village vitality, 1800 envelopes to go out and phone marathon to mobilize community, high cost on living in NYC, 5 million unemployed, rising civil rights movement, Civil RIghts Commission appointed, Dulles implementation of new policy, UN Umbrella, “I shall wait and see policy”, need to elect another democrat to advocate for civil rights, try to get a democratic candidate to state assembly that has community awareness, public schools need help- 4 of 5 children in area go to private schools, PS 8 & 41, possibility to end junior high schools need to address weak links in school systems, vote against VID 5th amendment, NYC schools 37th in the nation need new budget for textbooks, 
  • Page 60-63: 10/6 Executive Committee Meeting Notes – Mailings to register, treasurer’s report on funds management, treasurer to make decision on how to pay loans, Oct 14th Stevenson to speak, typewriter still needed, need to make up budget funds, conference with “I.C.C.” for “H+H” for signs to be printed in bulk, rallies and parties for Akers, Campaign committee “drop everything and register”
  • Page 64-75: 10/21 Executive Committee Notes- roll taken, going over Akers party 500 invitations to go out, each member to take 5 names from list to call, $300 for “I.C.C. for H+H”, ad to be place in the Village Voice, postponed “hold over” female VP to be elected, “I.C.C” to be involved with local elections for Passannante, budgeting for campaign signs and ads, belief that “loud voices” matter more in campaigning than signs and ads, speakers for 6 nights tickets cost $5, NYT & NYP ads criticizing bossism, budgeting membership fees, not an issue of black and white but a moral issue, $115 on a half page ad in Villager and Village Voice, propose discussions on reform with “ICC and H+H’
  • Page 76-80: 10/27 Executive Committee Meeting Notes- to motivate board of education, Passannante introduces new bills possibly motivated by religious reasons, 1200 mailings need to go out, $100 needed for rental space for “ICC and H+H”, Halloween Party for Passannante, identify candidates to be supported and appointed to committees, suggestion of instituting a chain phone call for Harrigan for Governor, WSPK Ceremony at Fifth Ave Hotel, Concert on November 9th for fundraising
  • Page 81-84: 11/10 Executive Committee Meeting Notes- committee to make recommendations for the future of VID, $30 to be spent on refreshments for membership meetings, membership drive initiative to be discussed, all debates to have 3 minute limit for speaker times unless otherwise ruled by chairman, Kuh oppose motion to introduce a “supergovernment” that could speak for VID, revoked that pending action of VID Membership any person allendig the Federation of NY Democratic Club does so as an individual
  • Page 85: 11/10  Executive Committee Resolution- electing new district leader, position currently held by Carmine DeSapio, VID invitees all Villagers to join in getting rid of DeSapio and select candidates to run against DeSapio, call for volunteers to join in door to door canvassing, while most of the US went Democratic in last election NY State went Republican, DeSapio and bossism at fault, call to replace “old line” clubs
  • Page 86-88: 11/17 Executive Committee Meeting Notes- “natural distrust all around”- constituents for constituents sake, financials break down, European Flight details 2 flights rather than 1 about $300 round trip, membership needs to increase, recommending separate accounts supervised by one treasurer, rumors that DeSapio may not run, chance to get gerrymandered out of their district, invitation to get education in politics, push for amendment that membership votes to go with campaign, Robot Meister of NYU to have conference, roll taken
  • Page 89: November Membership Meeting Agenda- consideration of affiliation with citywide independent organization, considerations for VID political programing and recommendations to the Executive Committee
  • Page 90-95: 11/24 Executive Committee Meeting Notes – Voted to let emergency committee work on mailing list for free party, renewing lease for additional year, joining Council of New York Democrats, flight details, create a statement that DeSapio has pledged to close road permanently, DeSapio to receive plaque for temporary closure of the Square, information on upcoming party, 
  • Page 96: Constitution of the Council of New York Democrats with VID changes 
  • Page 97: 12/ 18 Executive Committee Notes, information on paying rental for Hotel Beacon party


In 1959 the Village Independent Democrats ran campaigns against Carmine DeSapio for 1st Assembly District Leader with candidates Charles McGuiness and Gwenn Worth. The pair lost to DeSapio, but only by a few percentage points, improving considerably on their prior showing and nearly toppling him.

Newspaper Article about DeSapio-Finletter Debate from April 28, 1959 & Letter to the Editor Regarding Article. View PDF.

Invitation to Pro DeSapio Women’s Day Gala. View PDF.

Statement of Principles from New York Committee of Democratic Voters. View PDF.

  • Discusses fighting bossism, creating democratic clubs, ending patronage jobs, improving Judiciary practices & working to better the City and State.

May 1959 Village Independent Democrats Newsletter. View PDF. Includes information on patronage, upcoming events, campaigning, and information on candidates Charles McGuiness and Gwenn Worth.

Pro-DeSapio Flyers and Information. View PDF.

  • Includes several flyers created by the DeSapio campaign in order to support re-election.

1959 Newspaper Clippings. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Discussion of candidates from VID and Tamawa Club for upcoming election
  • Page 2: “Close ‘Square’ Permanently; Take it Out of Politics”
  • Page 3: Democratic Party ending bossism 
  • Page 4: Condition of New York State Democratic party, finding  permanent date for Primary election
  • Page 5-6: Robert Moses slum clearance, Herbert Lehman, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Thomas K Finletter join fight against DeSapio and Bossism, 
  • Page 7: New VID President Reverend Howard Moody
  • Page 8: Rift between DeSapio and Governor Harriman grows, new Anti Tammany Democratic club forms in Chelsea
  • Page 9: Politicians support anti-DeSapio reform groups, Gov. Harriman Aide support anti-DeSapio Groups 
  • Page 10-11: Save Washington Square, VID not included in Planning board directory
  • Page 12: Open hospitals to addicts, Protest slum clearance in Village
  • Page 13-14: Election of Secretary of Greenwich Village Association (GVA), Mae Corsuti wins, she is from Tamawa, against Gwenn Worth of the VIllage Independent Democrats. 
  • Page 15: PS 3 closing
  • Page 16: GVA Objects to Zampieri Brothers bakery plant on Cornelia Street
  • Page 17: Wagner sanctions off-track betting in NYC, Wagner Supports DeSapio, more Organization of New York State Democratic Party
  • Page 18: Use of voting machines in elections, VID executive board picks candidate to run against DeSapio
  • Page 19: “DeSapio Upheld by Party Chiefs on Bossism Issue”, “Tamawa Plans a Village Workshop” 
  • Page 20: Curtis Roosevelt hosts Caucuses organized by VID, Passannante distributes pencils at PS 41, September 15th set as primary date
  • Page 21-22: Village Voice wins award, DeSapio attacks press, Police stop VID valentine party for not having license
  • Page 22: VID looks for candidate to fight DeSapio, “Housing Bias Law Challenged by Greenwich Village Landlord”
  • Page 23-24: Reform group within Tammany Hall forms list for DeSapio, DeSapio pushes for June Primary
  • Page 25: Village Voice says that Tammany is trying to kill of advertisers after writing an article supporting the VID, Voting machines ok’d for primary 
  • Page 26: New Middle School to be built in Greenwich Village, Hank Bloomgarden attends VID party, VID Secretary pleads guilty to running event without cabaret license
  • Page 27: Wagner supports DeSapio in primary, Efforts to Save Jefferson Market Courthouse
  • Page 28: East Village to be studied for Redevelopment, Close Washington Square to Traffic, Conference on Narcotic addiction
  • Page 29: Former Tammany member Joseph Tocci to run against DeSapio
  • Page 30: Democratic Minority leader in State Senate Defends DeSapio, Wagner supports DeSapio
  • Page 31-32: Tilden Democrats to fight Tammany, Joseph Tucci runs against DeSapio
  • Page 33: Creation of Special library for reports of city departments, Margot Gayne and Audrey Kasha battle in primary for 1st Assembly District Middle, Two bills so support Narcotic addiction
  • Page 34: September 15th Primary date, Curtis Roosevelt becomes New School Vice President 
  • Page 35-36: Internal debate erupts at Tammany, GVA searches for Solution to create Middle income housing in Greenwich Village, Republicans set primary for September 15th, Lehman finds problem with DeSapio acting as a boss
  • Page 37: Fight for new Junior High school in Greenwich Village, Curtis Roosevelt is New School VP
  • Page 38: Changing relationships between NYC Democratic clubs, Book Review of “Mine Enemy Grows Older” featuring Greenwich Village reference. 
  • Page 39: Traffic in Washington Square, Primary day, VID not mentioned in Planning Board Directory
  • Page 40: Village Voice article about Battle to Save Washington Square and Shirley Hayes 
  • Page 41: State of New York State Democratic Party, Wagner endorses DeSapio, Baltzell leader in 9th Assembly District attacks DeSapio
  • Page 42: DeSapio dismisses Roosevelt-Lehman-Finletter, Moses comments on closing Washington Square, DeSapio Welcomes opposition, Mary Barnett Reiss chosen as candidate by Murray Hill Democrats 
  • Page 43: DeSapio attacks reformers, Traffic banned in Washington Square Park
  • Page 44: Traffic banned in Washington Square, Wagner wants to appoint Luther Gulick to “Little Hoover Commission”, “Liberal Democrats Denounce DeSapio” 
  • Page 45-47: Busses also banned from Washington Square Park, Eleanor Roosevelt calls Buffalo Democratic Convention a Catastrophe, 
  • Page 48: New York Post, “In the Backrooms” that discusses Democratic Clubs in NYC and other changes in Democratic party
  • Page 49: My Day by Eleanor Roosevelt that discusses DeSapio attack on Lehman, Finletter and herself, Tilden vote to back VID held over to May, Wagner Praises DeSapio, VID Forwards anti-patronage amendment, “DeSapio and Motherhood” where DeSapio asserts communists hate Mothers. 
  • Page 50: DeSapio and Finletter debate, Proposed name for Rockefeller Plaza
  • Page 51-52: Historic Zoning protections for Greenwich Village, efforts to close Women’s House of Detention
  • Page 53: “Village Plan’s First Community Addicts’ Center, Tilden asks to end name calling in Democratic party and work to start on reforms 
  • Page 54: DeSapio Finletter Debate April 27, Democratic Party Reforms
  • Page 55: Summary of DeSapio-Finletter Debate, Voting Machines to be used in Primary 
  • Page 56-57: Tilden Democratic Club and reform movement 
  • Page 58: Summary of Tammany Hall’s annual dinner  
  • Page 59: City bans traffic in Washington Square, 
  • Page 60: Chelsea Democratic Club pick anti-Tammany Candidates, DeSapio Rules out Reform influence
  • Page 61: DeSapio back compromise Reform Program,  Majority of State Senator Candidates will come from outside of New York City 
  • Page 62: Chief of Elections supports Voting Machines, Tammany faces new challenge from Chelsea club, West 4th Street Shops want “Commercial Zoning” 
  • Page 63: Tammany Hall Criticized for lack of Reforms, DeSapio Reform adopted, Tammany leader wins in 3rd District 
  • Page 64: “Tamawa Tackles Rent and Housing” and “Tamawa Ball Fills Manhattan Center”
  • Page 65: Lindsay Village Title I Projects, Villagers back Anti-Bias Housing Law
  • Page 66-67: Village fights to Save Charm and Picturesqueness 
  • Page 68: Three resign from Committee that Fought to Close Washington Square Park to Cars due to leadership tactics, VID Hoss Annual Dinner, 
  • Page 69: VID Support Addict Center in Greenwich Village, VID asks Village residents for Community Reform
  • Page 70: Meeting times for Insurgent Democratic Organizations, New York Post “In the Backrooms” update on Gov. Rockefeller for president, VP Nixon, Controller Gerosa resigns from chairman of committee for sale of Subway plans to Con Edison
  • Page 71: Use of voting machines in primaries, “In the Backrooms” discussing reform at Tammany hall and importance of election between Tamawa and VID
  • Page 72-73: June 9th, 1959 New York Post article about VID election in 1st AD. 
  • Page 74: Mayor opens hospitals for addicts
  • Page 75: “Lindsay in New Plea for Probe of Title I” and “Passannante to Ask City to Make Village Pilot Project for Upgrading”  
  • Page 76: Ball held in celebration of closing Washington Square, Tamawa Club holds successful Youth Night 
  • Page 77: “Call for End to Bos System, DeSapio Rule”, highlights importance of Greenwich Village election, VID campaign dinner at 5th Avenue Hotel 
  • Page 78: Profile of Rev. Howard R. Moody, “Hypos and Narcotics Panel at VID” and “VID bans Patronage”
  • Page 79: New Insurgent club in Gramercy Park- Chelsea area, Charles McGuiness challenges Desapio,
  • Page 80: Dear Editor Letters regarding leadership contests in 10th AD
  • Page 81: “McGuiness Says DeSapio Asks Unity Under Bossism” and “Adams Calls Tammany City’s ‘Absolute’ Boss
  • Page 82-83: “We Support McGuiness and Worth” September 10th issue of the Villager 
  • Page 84-85: Woman named Gin Briggs faces controversy after placing Pro McGuiness and Worth sign in store window
  • Page 86: Article about upcoming McGuiness-DeSapio Primaries 
  • Page 87: Lehman Asks for end of Bossism support VID candidates Charles McGuiness and Gwenn Worth. 
  • Page 88: “DeSapio: NO Mud-Gutter Politics, He tells VID Quizzers” DeSapio invites opponents to informal Meeting at Fifth Avenue Hotel 
  • Page 89: “‘Save the Village’ Vigilante Formed”, requesting protective zoning laws and moratorium on Building demoliton in Greenwich Village 
  • Page 90: “Rubinow Blasts DeSapio for Bringing Sq. Into Politics, Calls for His Defeat at Polls” 
  • Page 91: “Democratic Insurgent Leader Forms “Villagers for Pierce’” , about Samuel R. Pierce seeking support of Village Democrat Insurgent groups.
  • Page 92: “State Collects Testimony on Tap of DeSapio Foe’s Phone” about McGuinesses phone being tapped during campaign, and “Land Speculators Endanger Village Character: Seymour” 
  • Page 93: “Tammany Blasted for Taking Over Village Organization” about Tammany leadership within Greenwich Village Association

1959 Images

Images from 1959 Campaign Dinner at 5th Avenue Hotel
Contact Sheet: View JPG.
Images from contact sheet:

  • Jean Shepherd and James Lanigan. View JPG.
  • Jean Shepherd, an unidentified figure, an additional unidentified figure, Mary Nichols. View JPG.
  • Gwenn Worth and an unidentified figure. View as JPG.
  • Charles McGuiness, Jean Shepherd and Eleanor Roosevelt. View JPG.
  • Jean Shepherd, Howard Moody, Eleanor Roosevelt and an unidentified figure. View JPG.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt, Gwenn Worth, Charles McGuiness and an unidentified man. View JPG.
  • Charles McGuiness, Eleanor Roosevelt and entertainers Ron and Nama #1. View JPG.
  • Charles McGuiness, Eleanor Roosevelt and entertainers Ron and Nama #2. View JPG.
  • Charles McGuiness, Eleanor Roosevelt and entertainers Ron and Nama #3. View JPG.


Pro Lanigan and Schoenkopf Flyers & Information. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter about Senator Lehman’s endorsement Lanigan and Schoenkopf for state committee
  • Page 2: Biography of James S. Lanigan 
  • Page 3-4: Decline of DeSapio Pro Lanigan and Schoenkopf flyer
  • Page 5-8: Issue of the Village Democrat which supports Lanigan and Schoenkopf and reform movement 
  • Page 9: Lanigan and Schoenkopf Biographies 
  • Page 10-11: Elect Lanigan and Schoenkopf anti DeSapio Postcard 
  • Page 12-13: Join Our Fight, Pro Lanigan and Schoenkopf

1960 VID Flyers & Information. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: You and VID Brochure Highlighting the Successes of the Club 
  • Page 2-4: VID Flyer highlighting work including Information on NYU Title I Slum Clearance 
  • Page 5: Blank VID Membership Card
  • Page 6-7: October VID News
  • Page 8: Map of Greenwich Village Election Districts

DeSapio’s Choice Sign. View PDF.

1960 Newspapers. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Candidates for 1961 Mayoral election
  • Page 2: Carol Greitzer elected president of VID, defeating Ed Koch
  • Page 3: DeSapio losing power, battle for Democratic State committee is between four democratic clubs
  • Page 4: Sarah Schoenkopf to battle DeSapio for State Committee, Senator Lehman predicts Stevenson will be democratic presidential candidate
  • Page 5-7: Charles Kinsolving running for Democratic State Committee, DeSapio endorses Kinsolving despite being “liberal”, VID previously endorsed Kinsolving, but then ran Lanigan and Schoenkopf in the race for democratic state committee, Reform candidate William A. Delano running for Brooklyn Borough President
  • Page 8: Update on eviction case for tenants of 40 and 42 MacDougal Street, DeSapio supports Kinsolving and Clark for Democratic State Committee
  • Page 9: Court Decision regarding use of Voting Machines, Zoning laws change in the Greenwich Village which help preserve the area’s character. 
  • Page 10: New York State Democratic leaders do not support Adlai Stevenson nomination for president, Son of Adlai Stevenson, John Fell Stevenson, helps on James Lanigan’s campaign for state committee, Lehman and Garrison support Lanigan and Schoenkopf, VID supports Stevenson for President
  • Page 11: Update on election for Democratic State committee in 1st Assembly District, 
  • Page 12-13: Update on Primary battles in Brooklyn and Queens, List of candidates running in upcoming election, New York Committee for Democratic Voters to support Lanigan and Schoenkopf
  • Page 14: Posters for candidates in twentieth Congressional District. 
  • Page 15: DeSapio brought to court due to Candidate Stanley Tocci who lying about address, Democratic State Senatorial candidate urges support of VID candidates, TV special describes presidential race and mentions VID
  • Page 16: List of Citizens Union endorsed candidates, Lehman ousted as delegate for Democratic National Convention
  • Page 17-18: Lehman against Middle of the road reformism and supports Lanigan and Schoenkopf, Village Voice endorses Lanigan and Schoenkopf, French and Kinsolving claim they are not Tammany candidates, 
  • Page 19-20: “Two DeSapio Men Lose in Primary on West Side”: Teller and Farrell defeated by reform candidates 
  • Page 21-22: Lanigan defeats DeSapio backed candidate, election results in other districts
  • Page 23-24: Reform candidates win in four city races, challenges DeSapio’s power
  • Page 25: Reform Candidate William Fitts Ryan wins race
  • Page 26: Fortune Pope Indicted, Reform Candidates question how to unseat DeSapio, 
  • Page 27: Description of Village election for State Committee, Primary Results
  • Page 28-32: DeSapio bars Lehman as convention delegate, Information on June primary races
  • Page 33: How divide in New York State democratic party will impact Kennedy in presidential election
  • Page 34: Fortune Pope and Anthony Pope indicted in Rock Salt operation, update on presidential election
  • Page 35: Letter to New York Times editor regarding how Kennedy can gain support of reform democrats, End of Stevenson campaign for president 
  • Page 36: Update on status of Democratic Party in New York State, “Dr. Peale’s Bad Medicine” about an upcoming conference related to Nixon Campaign
  • Page 37: 15 Tammany district leaders oppose DeSapio as boss
  • Page 38-43: “The gray-flannel politicos make good: New York City’s insurgent Democratic clubs, whose members are more at home in art galleries than at clambake, are surprisingly successful in bucking Tammany Hall.” Article in the Herald Tribune Magazine about reform democratic clubs 
  • Page 44-45: Controversy over Kennedy’s religion, non reform West Side club urges ouster of DeSapio
  • Page 46-49: “Politics Is for People – Not the ‘Bigs’” Article which comes from speech given by George Romney, President of American Motors Corp. regarding how corporations and unions hold too much power.

1960 Presidential Election Voter Tally Sheets for Election Districts 2-40 & 73. View PDF.
Includes tallies for the presidential election between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon.

1960 Images

Images from Limelight Cafe, 91 Seventh Avenue South, 1960
The Limelight was a gallery and Coffeehouse located at 91 Seventh Avenue South in Greenwich Village during the 1950s and 1960s. It was a prominent location for Greenwich Village’s Bohemian population, often attracting writers, photographers, Beatniks and the off-broadway theater crowd.

  • Image 1: Available in JPG.
  • Image 2: Available in JPG.
  • Image 3: Available in JPG.
  • Image 4: Available in JPG.

1960 Correspondence

Correspondence Related to Lanigan and Schoenkopf Campaign. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter to Irving Engal announcing Lanigan and Schoenkopf Campaign
  • Page 2: Letter to Mr. Clarkeson about Lanigan and Schoenkopf nomination to run against DeSapio for leader of 1st AD
  • Page 3: Letter from VID thanking person for Sign Lanigan Schoenkopf petition 
  • Page 4: Letter from Lanigan about candidacy 
  • Page 5: Letter from Stevensonian Democratic Club Congratulating Schoenkopf Lanigan Victory 
  • Page 6-7: Letter from VID celebrating campaign victory

September 1960 letter from Village Independent Democrats to neighbors highlighting endorsements for President, Congress and State Senate. View PDF.

1960 Correspondence about Verrazano Street Project. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 12/6 Response from J. Clarence Davies Jr. of the NYC Housing and Redevelopment Board about work at Downing, Carmine and Bedford Street
  • Page 2: 12/8 Response from Ferdnand Roth,Commissioner of the Department of Real Estate, about the Verrazano Street project.

Telegrams supporting laws that encourage maximum voter participation, 1/24/1960. View PDF.

  • Page 1: To State Senator MacNeil Mitchell
  • Page 2: To State Assemblyman William Passannante

 1960 Correspondence with other Democratic Clubs and organizations. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter from Tilden Democratic Club about incorrect reporting of Executive Committee
  • Letter from Committee to Defend Martin Luther King Jr., April, 1960. 
  • Letter is requesting support in a petition against Woolworth’s for refusal to give equal service to Southern Black students. Signed by Bernard Lee, Harry Belafonte, A. Philip Randolp and Curtis Gantz. 
  • Resolution 
  • Page 2: Letter from Carol Greitzer (of VID) to members of Tilden Democratic Club about working with other reform organizations to create a ticket & provide information about Schoenkopf and Harold Greitzer as Candidates 
  • Page 3: Letter from New York Committee for Democratic Voters referring Village resident Englebert Kirchner to join VID
  • Page 4: Letter from New York Committee  for Democratic Voters about Charlie McGuiness 
  • Page 5: Letter from Paula David to Arthur Woodstone of the Stevenson for President Committee about inappropriate behavior at a Stevenson Election Party
  • Page 6: Letter from Lexington Democratic Club to VID about conference on issues of the 1960s 
  • Page 7: Letter from Committee to Defend Martin Luther King Jr. asking for support in petition against Woolworths due to racism in the South. Signed by Harry Belafonte and A. Philip Randolph. 
  • Page 8: Invitation from Stevenson Democratic Club 
  • Page 9: Letter from Frank Hogan to Carol Greitzer about convention of the Democratic party 
  • Page 10:  Letter from New York Young Democratic Club asking for access to VID’s mailing list
  • Page 11: Letter from District 65 Retail, Wholesale and Department store union about unincluded enclosed document 
  • Page 12: Letter to Irving from Carol Greitzer about Citywide meeting of Reform Democrats 
  • Page 13-16: Letter from New York Committee of Democratic Voters about Reform Club Movement, asking for names of people who would be interested in participating- Three different response letters, all with different names of people

1960 Correspondence Related to Title I Program. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Letter to Commissioner Robert Moses about Title I Redevelopment South of Washington Square Park and how it relates to NYU
  • Page 3: Letter from James Felt in response to a previous letter from Gretizer related to lack of Middle Income South of Washington Square Park
  • Page 4: September 27th Conversation between Gretizer and Burmaster of NYU relating to NYU Acquisition of Title I Site

Responses to August 18th, 1960 letter from Greitzer, about Clubhouse Control in Courts. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Response form City Council Minority Leader Stanley M. Isaacs 
  • Page 3: Response from Gerald Ullman Candidate in 1st AD
  • Page 4: Response from MacNeil Mitchell
  • Page 5: Response from Leonard Farbstein

1960 Letters to Press. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter from Carol Greitzer to New York Post regarding Shakespeare in the Park
  • Page 2: Letter to Editor of the New York times from Leon Braun of Save the Village 
  • Page 3: Letter from Carol Greitzer to New York Post Editor regarding how it is misleading to refer to tammany leaders as a reform group 
  • Page 4: Letter From Carol Greitzer to Village Voice regarding misleading advertising from Gerald Ullman in Village Voice 
  • Page 5: Gretizer letter to The Villager Regarding Misleading information from Gerald Ullman
  • Page 6: Greitzerl letter to Village Voice regarding false information on the VID’s stance

Correspondence with VID Committee Members. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter from Bernard Heineman resigning from Executive Committee VID
  • Page 2: Letter from William Vanden Hueval about Resignation as VID Vice President
  • Page 3-4: Letter from Ed Koch with annual report of Law Committee

Correspondence Related to 1960 Presidential Election. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Blank Poll of candidates 
  • Page 2: Results of Poll 
  • Page 3: Letter from Greitzer to DeSapio asking for all out registration drive to help elect president Kennedy

Correspondence Related to Board of Elections. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter to Ed Koch of VID from the Board of Elections regarding Section 377 of the election law 
  • Page 2-3: Correspondence between Ed Koch (then Chairman of VID law committee) and Board of Elections 
  • Page 4: Objections filed against designating petition document from Board of Elections
  • Page 5: Letter Carol Greitzer from Board of Elections regarding permission to make photostatic copies of petitions 
  • Page 6-8: May 18th letters to Board of Elections, Robert Brady and Corporation Counsel regarding petitions

Correspondence Related to Concerns of 1st Assembly District. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter to Irving Engel from VID thanking for concern about problems in 1st AD
  • Page 2: Letter to lloyd Garrison thanking for Concerns in problems in the 1st AD

Correspondence supporting Metcalf Baker Fair Housing Bill. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter to Bill urging support for Metcalf-Baker Fair Housing Bill
  • Page 2: Letter to Schoeneck urging Support of Metcalf Baker Fair Housing Bill
  • Page 3: Letter to Assemblyman Travia urging support of Metcalf Baker Fair Housing Bill
  • Page 4: Letter to Greitzer from New York State Senate Minority leader Joseph Zaretzki stating support of Fair Housing Bill
  • Page 5: Letter from Senator MacNeil Michell expressing that action is being withheld 
  • Page 6: Letter from Joseph Carlino Speaker of New York State Senate regarding Fair Housing Legislation 
  • Page 7-8: Letter from Passannante about status of Metcalf-Baker fair housing bill being dead in Assembly but hopes for it to be passed in Senate

Correspondence Related to Watchers Certificate. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Correspondence from William Walton relating to Poll Watching Certificates 
  • Page 2: Letter from Greitzer to District Leader Requesting Poll Watcher Certificates

Letter to Carol Greitzer from MacNeil Mitchell regarding legislation to fund Narcotic Addiction program. View as PDF.


The Village Independent Democrats ran another campaign against Carmine DeSapio and Tammany Hall for control of the 1st Assembly District South. VID’s candidates were Carol Greitzer and James Lanigan, who this year finally defeated DeSapio and running mate Elsie Gleason Mattura. Also on the ticket for this district were candidates Patrick J. Sullivan and Elvine A. Noferi, who were sponsored by the Washington Square Civic Club.  Sullivan and Noferi were similarly motivated by their disdain for DeSapio and Tammany, but were ultimately defeated by the VID candidates Carol Greitzer and James Lanigan.

From the May-June 1961 issue of VID News, view entire issue as a PDF.

Lists of those running for office, 1961. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 1961 City and Borough Wide Contests 
  • Page 2: 1961 Manhattan District Leader and Councilman fights 
  • Page 3: 1961 District Leadership Contests Manhattan

Pro-DeSapio Campaign Flyers & Information. View PDF.
DeSapio was the incumbent candidate from Tammany Hall who was running for re-election in 1st Assembly District South.

  • Page 1: Ad for volunteers for DeSapio’s Campaign 
  • Page 2-3: Pro DeSapio Flyer, Anti Lanigan flyer detailing Lanigan’s unclear stance on Mayor Wagner
  • Page 4-11: Is Politics for Politicians Pro DeSapio Flyer/Booklet 
  • Page 12: Flyer Published by the Village Independent Democrats that refutes Is Politics for Politicians booklet
  • Page 13-14: What is a Leader what is a political opportunist flyer
  • Page 15: Bossism? Or Bunk! Flyer 
  • Page 15-16: Letter to Community Members from DeSapio asking for support 
  • Page 17-24: Issues of the “Democrat, Lie Detector Bulletin” which were published by DeSapio’s campaign

1961 Sullivan and Noferi for District Leader Pamphlet. View PDF.
Sullivan and Noferi were other candidates running in the 1st Assembly District South who were endorsed by the Washington Square Civic Club.

  • Page 1-2: Know your Neighbor’s Pamphlet Smaller
  • Page 3-4: Know Your Neighbors Pamphlet Larger

Carol Greitzer and James Lanigan Election Booklets and Flyers. View PDF.
Election materials for Carol Greitzer and James Lanigan, who were VID endorsed candidates running for Assembly leader in 1st Assembly District South.

  • Page 1-2: Take the Bulldozer by the Horns pro Lanigan and Greitzer Pamphlet. This highlights the work being done by VID to fight against redevelopment and large demolitions. 
  • Page 2-3: Pro Lanigan and Greitzer Flyer with Sample Ballot 
  • Page 5-6: Lanigan and Greitzer Door Hanger
  • Page 7-8: You have a job Lanigan and Greitzer Postcard
  • Page 9-24: Let’s Talk about…VID Booklet. Pro Lanigan and Greitzer, highlights the stances taken on issues including housing, narcotics, education, traffic, Washington Square Park, and the Greenwich Village Community 
  • Page 25: Pro Lanigan Greitzer Flyer Featuring Village Voice article

Biographies of James Lanigan and Carol Greitzer. View PDF.

  • Page 1: VID Flier with a Biography for Lanigan and Greitzer
  • Page 2-3: Longer Biography of Greitzer
  • Page 4-7: Longer Biography of Lanigan 
  • Page 8: Lanigan Biography

Letters Supporting Lanigan and Greitzer, 1961. View PDF.

  • Page 1:  6/30 Letter to Kenneth O’Donnell at the White House requesting support in election against DeSapio 
  • Page 2-4: 8/12 “It’s Time for a Great Change” Document detailing problems in Greenwich Village and lack of support from DeSapio for them
  •  Page 5: 9/2 Letter from VID Encouraging Support for Lanigan and Greitzer

Background Statistics on VID Elections (1957-1961). View PDF.
Document features election results and statistics for elections in 1957, 1958, 1959 and 1960. It also features registration statistics and signatures collected for both VID and DeSapio ahead of the 1961 election for Democratic District Leader.

Lanigan and Greitzer Correspondence related to Rent Control. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Response from George Ignalis New York State Senate Majority Leader
  • Page 2: Response from Lieutenant Governor Malcolm Wilson 
  • Page 3: Response from Robert Mccrate Counsel to the Governor 

1961 Nunez and Rosenberg for Supreme Court Justice flyer. View PDF.
Nunez and Rosenberg were Democrats running for Supreme Court Justice. They were against bossism and endorsed by Village Independent Democrats.

1961 Schnurer and Rubin Pamphlet. View PDF.
Candidates running for District leader 1st Assembly District Middle

1961 Weschler and Aid Flyer. View PDF.
Robert Wechsler and Rita Aid were reform Democrats running in the 5th Assembly District Middle. Flyer includes endorsement from Eleanor Roosevelt, William Fitts Ryan, as well as campaign stances.

1961 List of Different Different VID Committees and Members. View PDF.

  • Page 1: List of ommittee members under each Vice President
  • Page 2: List of Officers and Executive Committee Members

1961 Invitations to VID Events. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Invitation to VID Gerrymandering Rally 
  • Page 3-4: VID Election Eve Parade Rally Invitation & Bio’s of Lanigan and Greitzer 
  • Page 5: Invitation to Party for New Political Year
July 1961 issue of VID News. View the entire issue as a PDF.
September 1961 issue of VID news. View full document as PDF.

1961 VID News Publications. View as PDF.

  • Page 1-2: March 1961 VID News, members choose candidates, Shame of Greenwich Village article about stopping evictions, saving 15 Sheridan Square, saving rent control, Verrazano Street, upcoming events 
  • Page 3-4: VID News April 1961, Lanigan and Greitzer v. Carmine DeSapio,  VID concerns including closing Washington Square Park to Cars, Middle income housing in Greenwich Village, 
  • Page 5-6: May-June 1961 VID News, VID sets campaign platform, Canvass for Greitzer and Lanigan, profile of Rudolf Castore chairman of Verrazano Street tenants association. 
  • Page 7-8: July 1961, VID News, Noferi and Sullivan enter race, Lanigan calls for local clean up, VID Platforms. 
  • Page 9-10: August 14th,  Village Democrat news supporting Wagner & advocating for new bus routes
  • Page 11-12: August 24th, VIP’s support Lanigan and Greitzer, DeSapio steals VID speech, VID to host mayor Wagner 
  • Page 13-16 September 1961 VID News, close Washington Square Park to Cars, Verrazano Street, articles against DeSapio, What does DeSapio think of women? 
  • Pages 17-18: VID Newsletter November 1961 Endorsing Reform Slate
  • Pages 19-20: Village Democrat, VID Registration Drive and Requirements

April 13th, 1961 article in the Reporter about Tammany Hall. View PDF.

  • Page 1-3: Denouncing DeSapio and “Bossism” need to find a suitable Democrat replacement, speaking to ethnic/racial divides within the party
  • Page 4-6: “they can join the Peace Corps” comments, reform groups trying to reorganize party leadership, ethnic divides in jobs, role of women in the party
  • Page 7-8: classism within politics, while there is a need for reform party needs to specify what it wants and how to get it to succeed, calling for an end of DeSapio’s leadership

Transcript from WCBS Radio Show, “Transcript from WCBS Radio Show “Let’s Find Out”  from May 14, 1961. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Guest is Irving Engel Chairman of Executive Group of Committee of Democratic Voters, Wagner praise, Reform v. Tammany Democrats
  • Page 3-6: good year for a Republican upset, Wagner appointments, possible support for Javits, need for a “fusion” candidate, young people participating
  • Page 7- 10: Moving support to outer boroughs, difference between “Democrats” and those who are “democratic”, DeSapio and Wagner, close race ahead for Democrats
  • Pages 10-14: Campaign finances and endurance, corruption in New York County, how to get people to rally and support the party moving forward, reform club goals

Articles about taking down Tammany Hall. View PDF.

  • Page 1-3: “The Tammany Leader is being challenged by reformers in his own Greenwich Village District and the outcome may decide his future – if any- on the larger New York scene”
  • Page 4-6: “De Sapio at the Village Barricades”

1961 Village Independent Democrat Flyers. View PDF.

  • Page 1-5: VID information, page 1-2 highlights the History of VID, and 2-5 highlights VIDs stance on Housing, Washington Square Park, Other Recreational Facilities, Narcotics, Education, Traffic, Community Atmosphere, Party Reform & Charter Reform 
  • Page 6: VID Flyer with two New York Times Articles, “A Week Away, the Primary” and “Wagner or Levitt”
  • Page 7: Sample Ballot highlighting VID endorsements 
  • Page 8: VID Prescription for Reform, highlighting the groups Principles  
  • Page 9: “What Has the Village Independent Democrats Ever Done for Me” 

Village Independent Democrats on Housing. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Notice that the VID had filed to create moderate income rental housing in Greenwich Village 
  • Page 2: Housing Forum Panel flier, with list of Panelists

1961 Pro Wagner Information & Flyers. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Do it again Flyer
  • Page 3-4: Reform Democrats support Wagner Against the Bosses Flyer
  • Page 5-6: Vote for Wagner – Beame – Screvane Flyers 
  • Page 7-8: Vote for Wagner Card with endorsements from other leaders 
  • Page 9-11: Remarks given by Mayor Wagner August 28th, Greenwich Village 
  • Page 12-13: Suggested Remarks for Wagner in August 28th Speech
  • Page 14-15: Pro Wagner Flyer “Wagner Cheered in Village for Evicting Buses”

Correspondence related to Verrazano Street Project, 1961. View PDF.

  • Page 1: July 13th Letter from Lanigan and Greitzer to Mayor Wagner against Verrazano Street Project, Requesting that Mayor Wagner personally survey the site  
  • Page 2-5: Letter from Lanigan and Greitzer to Mayor Wagner about survey of Verrazano Street project. Which highlights the problems with the proposal including the 150 residents who will be displaced

August 2nd, 1961 Stop the Bulldozers Rally. View PDF.

  • Pages 1: Invitation to “Stop the Bulldozers Rally” where James S. Lanigan will deliver first major speech
  • Page 2-3: Summary of “Stop the Bulldozers Rally”

1961 Letters to the Editors of New York Newspapers. View PDF.

  • Pages 1-2: August 23rd,  1961 Letter to NYP editor talking on their article about “sleeper” rent hikes
  • Page 3: August 7th, 1961 letter to editor of NYT from Gwenn Worth criticizing Lanigan’s view on Wagner

1961 Meeting Notes

1961 Executive Committee Notes. View PDF.

  • Page 1-3: January 23rd, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, CDV Structure and reports on community action, housing, program committee, flight committee, state legislation, and new building committee
  • Page 4-8: January 30th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, Don Davis speaks on gerrymandering, Committee reports on new members, legal, editorial, membership, community service, political research, treasurer’s report, new building committee, state legislation, financial committee, platform committee, headquarters committee, social committee, and membership committee
  • Page 9-12: February 9th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes rediscussing gerrymandering and roles of district leaders, committee reports from community action, membership, publicity, newsletter, social, community service, finanse, state legislation 
  • Page 13-15: February 20th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, discussion of the NYCDV, and committee reports from membership, program. Social, newsletter, and community action
  • Page 16-18: March 13th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, Herb Rosenberg agrees to be Campaign Chairman, committee reports on newsletter, community action, housing, program, social, new members, and community service
  • Page 19-22: March 20th 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, Alex de Joia as Headquarters Chairman, new “Traffic Committee” to be formed, updates on Lexington Club meeting, “West Village situation”, committee reports from newsletter, community action, housing, flight, ad hoc, social, community service, CDV, membership, treasurer 
  • Page 23: March 20th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, opposing “urban renewal” in West Village, asking to appoint new citizens committee on housing philosophy for the city
  • Page 24-25: March 27th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, changes in VID Constitution, rules for district leader male election, sitting areas, traffic in Washington Square, executive committee rule changes, membership campaign, female leader election, city council and judicial convention, committee reports on headquarters, Audie, community service, ad hoc constitution
  • Page 26-27: April 3rd 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, formation of a finance committee, setting up two new bank accounts, day set to elect district leader female candidate, authorization for purchase of 2 new typewriters and 100 folding chairs, plans for dinner/speaking event in June, and plans to work on a “credo”
  • Page 28-30: April 17th 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, announcement of program meeting for April 19th, appointment of two committees, setting new budget of about $35K, hiring campaign secretary, “room next door”, traffic in Washington Square, change to the rules, constitutional amendment, contribution to catholic school athletic league journal, committee reports on old housing, community action, flight, headquarters, membership and treasurer’s report, and campaign chairman’s report
  • Page 31- 32: May 1st 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, purchasing sound equipment, renting the room next door, Verrazano Street rally, CDV updates on city-wide elections, committee reports from editorial, newsletter, community action, membership, community service, and campaign
  • Page 33: May 8th 1961 Executive committee meeting notes, letter writing to President Dudley about Planning Board, $20 a trophy for PAL contest, cabaret licenses around alcohol should be amended, support for President Kennedy’s program to support public schools, discussion on candidates for Borough President and District Attorney
  • Page 34-36: May 15th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes CDV matters on negotiations for more space, Verrazano Street, appropriation for editorial materials, Newsletter, duty nights, Senator Lehman’s sunday tv appearance, Washington Square, committee reports on community action, flight, treasurer’s report, legal, membership, campaign, CDV and Mayor Wagner, newsletter, and duty nights
  • Page 37: May 31st, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, committee reports from newsletter, membership, flight, community action, social, finance, and updates on roadway through Washington Square Park, and Herb Rosenberg hired as Campaign Manager
  • Page 38-39: June 26th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, discussing Parks Commissioner Morris about Washington Square Park issues, NYU to include 175 family size apartments in new project, President Dudley requesting well qualified locals to Planning Board, writing letters to Mayor Wagner and Traffic Commissioner Wylie, Phil Cohen as new Publicity Chairman, and committee reports from campaign, editorial, community action, social, membership, and new members
  • Page 40-42: July 20th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, reforms with Wagner regarding VID’s positions, sign atop VID headquarters, 717 new members, and committee reports from newsletter, social, legal, membership, headquarters, campaign, publicity, and community action
  • Page 43-44: July 31st, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, Herb Rosenberg resignation from Campaign Manager, last minute resignation policy, clean up petition signatures, get Wagner’s signature, hold bulldozer rally on Wednesday at 7:30pm, new members to Campaign Committee, convention with Tilden and Murray Hill clubs, appropriations from CDV, Support Dick Zeiff for City Council, ads for campaign
  • Page 45-47: August 14th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, Norman Dorsen appointed for assisting with financial campaign matters, Fire Island Party, street speakers out, Mayor Wagner to attend Washington Square concert, Elenore Roosevelt to attend cocktail party by Sponsors committee, torchlight parade, and committee reports from newsletter, legal, community action, CDV financials, and constitutional amendments
  • Page 48-50: September 11th, Executive Committee meeting notes, VID in debt $3500-5K, proposals for dinner/entertainment nights to earn funds, ad hoc to speak on clearcut positions on appointments, mailing lists to be brought to meetings, three new committees, awaiting word from landlord on room next door, election inspections, civil rights legislation, money appropriations, member lists, state supreme court judgeships, county executive committee, and mailings for Wagner
  • Page 51-52: September 28th, 1961, Executive Committee meeting notes, Christmas cards, sign on the roof, committee rules, zoning, county committee meeting voting stats, entertainment night Oct 16th, captains to turn in money from books and silver donkeys, night duty for all executive committee members, needing lawyers to staff rent meeting, district leaders needed to discuss local problems
  • Page 53-55: November 13th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, program committee report on VID Housing Forum to include Jane Jacobs, flight committee update: no jets, John Westergaard to support fallout shelter bill in Albany, membership stands at 907 people, 
  • Page 56-60: November 20th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, thank you letter from Dick Zeif, Twice part by FDR-Woodrow Wilson Club, county committee rules, membership meeting to choose county leader, board of elections, Children’s Christmas party, and parking garage under Bryant Park
  • 61-63: November 27th, 1961 Executive Committee meeting notes, coffee house licensing, Verrazano Street housing project, and committee reports from newsletter, flight, headquarters, county leader elections

1961 Membership Meeting Notes. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: 1/16 Meeting Notes- introduction to new officers, announcements and discussions of formation of committees for the new year, membership considerations, CDV structure changes
  • Page 3-4: 2/2 Meeting Notes- discussions on recommendations for revised structure of NYCDV, implementation of power of General committee, new criteria to be written into VID Constitution
  • Page 5-7: 2/14 Meeting Notes- final action on NYCDV matter, candidates for VID representatives listed, 
  • Page 8-10: 3/6 Meeting Notes- public forum on Democratic county leadership, Herman Greitzer as moderator, and committee reports from social, program, and letter regarding “prior lien” bill
  • Page 11: 4/10 Meeting Notes- Discussion on granting singing permits in Washington Square Park for sundays, condemn roughness of police in dispersing peaceful demonstrations, failures of Parks Department to consider “intelligent” solution for Washington Square Park, and coffeehouse situation
  • Page 12: 5/12 Meeting Notes- NYCDV to elect new representative to fill Ed Koch’s vacancy, fare increases from Fifth Avenue Coach Company, adoption of set of campaign guidelines, Verrazano Street report, folksingers rally on Sunday at Washington Place,  
  • Page 13: 5/24 Meeting Notes- President of VID to write letters to President Kennedy in support of Freedom Riders, desegregation, and  civil rights legislation. 
  • Page 14: 6/12 Meeting Notes- Election of executive committee members, Herb Farber as Publicity Chairman, Riverside Independent Democrats boat ride up the Hudson, selection of candidate for Democratic County Committee, further recommendations for Charter Reform 
  • Page 15-16: 7/24 Meeting Notes- new voting machines for Primaries, Dudley for Borough President, petition to designate Robert Wagner for Mayor, committee of vacancies to slate out Judicial delegates, bulldozer rally planned for July 31, Mayor’s trip to Verrazano Street
  • Page 17-20: 9/18 Meeting Notes- Mayoral election, constitutional amendments, committees, executive committee, meeting, elections, qualifications and eligibility, other “important political matters related to our victory”, planning cocktail/entertainment nights, looking to hire executive secretary

Report of the Village Independent Democrats Constitutional Committee. View PDF.
Outline of recommended amendments to VID Constitution.

1960-1962 Committee for Democratic Voters

New York Committee for Democratic Voters Proposed Platforms. View PDF.

  • Page 1-3: Proposed Platform of Education Draft #2 from April 2nd, 1961
  • Page 4-6: Proposed Platform on Health and Welfare Services Draft #1 April 30, 1961
  • Page 7-9: Proposed Platform on Civil Rights, Minorities and Integration Draft #1 May 1, 1961 
  • Page 10: Proposed Platform on Personnel Policies and Civil Service Draft #2 May 1, 1961 
  • Page 11-12: Proposed Platform on Transportation and Traffic #3 May 2, 1961 
  • Page 13-14: Proposed Platform on Cultural and Community Programs Draft #3 May 2nd, 1961
  • Page 15-16: Platform on Fiscal Management Draft #2   May 3rd, 1961 
  • Page 17: Proposed Platform Metropolitan and Regional Planning and a New Approach to Authorities 
  • Page 18-19: Proposed Labor Relations Platform Draft #1 May 5, 1961 
  • Page 20-23: Proposed Housing Platform Draft #1 May 5, 1961 
  • Page 24: Proposed Platform on Juvenile Delinquency Draft #1 May 7, 1961 
  • Page 25-26: Proposed Platform, Promotion of Trade, Industry and Commerce Draft #3 May 8. 1961
  • Page 27-28: Proposed Platform on Police and Fire protection Draft #2 May 8, 1961

Proposed Structure for New York Committee for Democratic Voters, as sent to Club Presidents and Members of the General Committee. View as PDF.

New York Committee for Democratic Voters Plan of Structure, April 17th, 1962. View as PDF.

New York Committee Democratic Voters Information and Summaries of Activities. View PDF.

Correspondence Related to New York Committee for Democratic Voters. View PDF.

  • Page 1-3: Correspondence between Jeannie Rossoff and Carol Greitzer about Greitzer’s Pending Membership to the New York Committee of Democratic Voters 
  • Page 4: Letter to Procedures Committee of Reform Independent Democrats from Ira B. Zimmerman about membership 
  • Page 5: Blank authorization form stating that the Village Independent Democrats agree to participate in the Selection system established by the reform Democratic Clubs 
  • Page 6: Letter explaining what must be changed in the procedures of the Village Independent Democrats in order to participate 
  • Page 7: Letter from Richard Brown, Executive Director of the New York Committee for Democratic Voters expressing support for Ed Koch’s campaign for assembly


In 1962, Ed Koch (who would later become New York City Mayor), ran an unsuccessful campaign for New York State Assembly against William Passannante of the Tawana Tammany club.

Eleanor Roosevelt supports Koch in election for State Assembly, view additional information as a PDF.

Ed Koch for Assembly 1962 Campaign Flyers & Brochures. View PDF.

  • Page 1:  Ed Koch Assemblyman Candidate Flyer
  • Page 2-4: Ed Koch Assemblyman Candidate Platforms
  • Page 5-6: The Good Voter’s Handy Refuter Computer
  • Page 7-8: Elect Koch Brochure 
  • Page 9: Flyer for Ed Koch with Press Clippings
  • Page 10: August 31, Liberals for Koch Letter
  • Page 11-12: Elect Edward I. Koch Card

VID Koch Campaign Committee. View PDF.

  • Page 1-5: People Invited to Join Koch Committee 
  • Page 6-7: Koch Campaign Committee Statement from Joseph A. Bergadano, Chairman

Ed Koch Correspondence Related to Campaign. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter from Ed Koch to Stanley Geller about candidacy for Assemblyman in 1st Assembly District, and wanting to work with VID in Election 5/16/62
  • Page 2: Telegram from Koch to William Passannante requesting a second debate – 7/26/62
  • Page 3: Telegram to Koch from Theo Bikel regarding the election and defeat 9/7/62
  • Page 4: Letter from Ed Koch to Eleanor Roosevelt about defeat 9/7/62
  • Page 5: Letter from Ed Koch to campaign members about defeat 9/10/62

Correspondence Related to Support of Rent Control Laws. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter from City Council Minority Leader Stanley M. Isaacs supporting continuation of Rent Control laws
  • Page 2-3: Letter to Councilman from VID listing positions on City Rent Control Bill
  • Page 4: Response to VID letter from Stanley M. Isaacs 
  • Page 5: Response to VID Letter from Councilman Shaul Sharison 
  • Page 6: Response to VID Letter from Councilman Robert A. Low 
  • Page 7: Letter to Stanley M. Isaacs from Evelyn

VID Voting Information & Guides. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Voting Information for Election of Reform Candidate for Congress in 19th CD
  • Page 2:  March letter from VID to neighbors about upcoming election
  • Page 3: Letter to District Leader from VID in support of Carol Greitzer as District Leader

1962 VID News. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: VID News January-February 1962, fallout shelter law, VID to host event with City Commissioners, VID’s aim for Villagers,
  • Page 3-8: VID News July-August 1962, Ed Koch endorsed for Assembly, VID annual dinner, Narcotics Center, Pushcarts, playgrounds, a message from Eleanor Roosevelt.

Invitations to Village Independent Democrats Events 1962. View PDF.

  • Page 1: New Member Get together at home of Sarah Schoenkopf, 14 Barrow Street, 4/24/62
  • Page 2-3: Invitation to VID membership meeting for discussion by the reform members of City Council 
  • Page 4: “How to Succeed in Politics Without Really Lying Reformation Comedy” by VID, 6/25/62
  • Page 5: Lunch Menu for Save the Pushcarts Event 
  • Page 6: Accepting Tickets for “Beat Buckley Dinner”, 5/21/ 62
  • Page 7-8: Charter Jet to europe for 9/20/62-10/21/62 trip

Information and Correspondence Related to 1962 Village Independent Democrats Committee Meetings. View PDF.

  • Page 1: List of VID Committees and Descriptions of them
  • Page 2: Schedule of Committee meetings for April 1962
  • Page 3: Invitation for Milton Mollen, Chairman of Housing and Redevelopment Board to Speak at the Public meeting of VID concerning Housing. 
  • Page 4: Minutes of City Affairs Committee meeting 8/7/1962 concerning $1.50 minimum wage
  • Page 5: Rudy Castore Resignation from Executive Member committee due to supporting Passannante as an assemblyman 
  • Page 6: Invitation to Special Events committee meeting to plan Art Auction and Pasta Party 

Correspondence related to United Nationals Bond issue & Invitations to UN Bond Rally. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 3/28/62 Telegram to Senator Jacob Javits requesting rejection of Aiken Short-Term Loan 
  • Page 2: 4/4/62 Letter from Jacob Javits to Mr. Geller expressing support for UN
  • Page 3: Letter from Senator Kenneth B. Keating about UN Bond issue
  • Page 4-6: Invitation to rally in support of UN Bonds 
  • Page 7: Ticket stub for UN Bond Rally Town hall

Correspondence related electing a School Board Member. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter from Greenwich Village Association regarding selecting people for local school board
  • Page 2: Letter from Department of Education thanking the Village Independent Democrats for recommendation for school board

Correspondence Related to being a representative of the Village Independent Democrats. View PDF.

Correspondence and Invitations from other Democratic Clubs. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter format for certifying someone is a member of Village Independent Democrats 
  • Page 2: Letter to AFI Gallery confirming Ruth Hochman is a member of VID, in order to pick up paintings for May 11 Art Auction that will take place at Renaissance House
  • Page 1: 1/20 letter from New York Committee for Democratic Voters about delegate structure 
  • Page 2-4: Invitation to Roosevelt Day Dinner from ADA which will take place at Astor hotel on 2/1/62, third page lists national board members and officers of ADA
  • Page 5-6: Letter from Eugene Prosnitz of ADA asking if a speaker on medical care for the aged would be helpful
  • Page 7-9: Letters from Benjamin Franklin Reform Democratic Club regarding Black Southern Voters
  • Page 10: Letter from VID to members regarding workshop hosted by New York Committee of Democratic Voters
  • Page 11: Invite from Alfred E. Smith Democratic Club Annual Dinner & Dance 6/9/1962
  • Page 12-14: Letter from North Shore Democratic Club regarding Dinner, Dance & Journal event 
  • Page 15: Letter from Unity Democratic Club asking for support in upcoming election
  • Page 16-20: Unity democratic Club Spring dance invite & Information 

1962 VID Correspondence with members & public. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: 2/1/1962 Letter from Bernar Swartz complaining about content of meeting
  • Page 3: 2/22 Letter from William Honan explaining that he will be absent from Executive Committee Meetings 
  • Page 4: 3/14 Letter from Perry J Davis about Public Liability and Property Damage Insurance
  • Page 5: 3/29 Letter to Rosemary Baer Confirming VID membership and listing their elected officials
  •  Page 6: 5/9 Letter from Evrid Corp explaining unconstitutionality of membership meeting due to improper notice
  • Page 7-8: 5/15 Letter from S. Frances Solow regarding, giveaway to At&t march on Washington, and Grand and Petty Jury Service 
  • Page 9: 5/19 Letter from Arlene Carmen resigning from 8th ED 
  • Page 10: 3/29 Letter to Ms. Mahler regarding which congressional district she is in
  • Page 11-12: July Correspondence with Jano Whelan about working in Ed Koch Campaign 
  • Page 13: 8/7 Letter from James Adler suggesting ways to increase public use of Subway

Correspondence related to Narcotic Fund, 1962. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 3/27 Telegram to Senator MacNeil Mitchell urging implementation of Mitchell-Savarese Bill which would support Narcotics treatment 
  • Page 2: 6/12 Letter to Mayor Wagner suggesting a city-wide financed program supporting narcotic addicts

Correspondence with Government Officials, 1962. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 1/3 Thank you note from Comptroller Abe Beame for support in winning election 
  • Page 1: 1/3 Thank you note from Comptroller Abe Beame for support in winning election 
  • Page 2: 3/22 Letter from Mayor’s Executive Assistant thanking Charles Miller for letter
  • Page 3: 5/21 Letter from Sarah Schoenkopf notifying announcing re-election to State Committee of the Democratic Party 
  • Page 4: 8/12 Letter to DOB Commissioner Harold Birns regarding poor conditions due to work from Power company 
  • Page 5: 8/13 Letter to President Kennedy urging a reorganization of the Committee on Equal Employment opportunity 
  • Page 6-7: 2/8 Letter to Mayor Wagner regarding Title I Project between Bleecker and Houston Streets

1962 Delegate for Democratic State Convention Correspondence, 1962. View PDF.

  • Page 1: 5/16 Letter from Frank Weil expressing interest in representing VID at Democratic State Convention
  • Page 2: 5/18 Letter from Jack Berman Expressing interest in being a VID delegate at Democratic State Convention

Newspaper Clippings, 1962. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Various clippings regarding court patronage April-June 1962 
  • Page 2: Chelsea-Clinton News July 1962 about Eleanor Roosevelt Endorsement of Ed Koch for NY State Assembly
  • Page 3: July Newspaper clippings Regarding Koch Primary for Liberal Reform
  • Page 4: Chelsea-Clinton News 8/9 Article regarding Koch support of Middle Income housing on Washington Square 
  • Page 5: 8/9 Village Voices Regarding Reform Democratic candidates 
  • Page 6: 8/20 Village Voice Feiffer Cartoon
  • Page 7: Daily News 8/30, Lehman Supports DeSapio
  • Page 8: 8/30 NY Post Wagner, Lehman back DeSapio article 
  • Page 9: 8/31 Mayor Endorse Refromers Rival in Village Race
  • Page 10: 8/20 NY World Telegram Wagner endorse Passannante 
  • Page 11: 8/29 New York Post & New York Times 8/30, end of Verrazano Street Project, Middle income housing pilot program in Greenwich Village, Lehman supports Passannante, 
  • Page 12-13: Village Voice December article about VID election with note from Sharon Howard.


Correspondence Related to 21 Day Rule. View PDF.
The 21 Day rule was a rule that allowed for legislation not acted on within 21 days of being within the Rules Committee to be placed on the floor. This legislation was typically supported by liberal democrats as it allowed for legislation to circumvent the Rules Committee where it would often die.

  • Page 1: Letter to Leonard Farbstein US Congressman from Ed Koch about Reintroducing the 21 Day Rule 
  • Page 2: January 14th Letter from John Lindsay, Congressman for 17th District, who is also in favor of reinstating the 21-Day rule

Letters related to Education Advocacy, 1963. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Letter to Governor Rockefeller from Ed Koch against charging money for State University
  • Page 2: Letter to Max Rubin, President of the NYC Board of Education asking for reinstatement of James Council

Village Independent Democrats’ Statements on Integration, 1963. View PDF.
Two statements from the Village Independent Democrats supporting integration in Greenwich Village

Pro-Ed Koch and Carol Greitzer Flyers, 1963. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Pro Koch and Greitzer Flyer featuring Village Voice Article 
  • Page 2-3: Small VID Flyer about election day and candidate endorsements

1963 VID News. View PDF.

  • Page 1-6: April VID News, Committee for Democratic Voters convention, Reform movement in City Council race, VID committee reports, recent events, donation collections, housing survey, VID peace seminar, upcoming primary, VID membership renewals, middle income housing Washington Square Village, District Leader report by Carol Greitzer
  • Page 7-10: March VID News survey to aid tenants, committee reports, events, District Leader Report by Carol Greitzer, ‘“I look Around, I see workers’” by Ed Koch about success of VID, Koch, Geller, Gold win CDV election
August 31, 1963 New York Times Article about Ban of Buses in Washington Square Park. View entire article as a PDF.

Letters Supporting State Senate Rule XXII. View PDF.
In 1917 senators adopted a rule (Senate Rule 22) that allowed the Senate to invoke cloture and limit debate with a two-thirds majority vote.

  • Page 1: Letter to Jacob Javits from Ed Koch
  • Page 2: Letter to Kenneth Keating from Ed Koch

Ed Koch Statement to City Planning Board August 5th, 1963, regarding issues faced on MacDougal Street. View PDF.

Letter to Herman from Carol Greitzer and Ed Koch, thanking for Herman’s help in campaign against DeSapio. View PDF.

February 1963 list of Village Independent Democrats Officers, past Presidents and Executive Committee Membership list. View PDF.

Pro Koch Flyer. View entire document as a PDF.


Pro-Koch Campaign Materials. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Re-elect Ed Koch Flyer about beating Tammany Hall and Ed Koch’s various stances
  • Page 2-3 Vote for Ed Koch Card with Sample ballot graphic

Letter to Village Independent Democrats from Robert Williams fon May 14th, 1964 about lack of primary date on Ed Koch Flyer. View PDF.

1964 Press Clippings. View PDF.

  • Page 1: Big Town Chronicle article about DeSapio’s lawsuit requesting a Re-election for 1st Assembly District South 
  • Page 2-3: Village Voice Article about VID and NAACP Rally

May 14th, 1964 Court Document about lawsuit filed by Carmine DeSapio that requests a new primary election for Democratic Male Assembly District Leader. View PDF.

VID Event Invites, 1964. View PDF.

  • Page 1-2: Pamphlet for Women’s House of Detention Conference 
  • Page 3: Invite to “Coffee Klatch for Johnson, Humphrey and Kennedy” an informal discussion sponsored by VID

Press Release for Villager about adding additional buses to Fifth Avenue Route. View PDF.

January 1964 VID Newsletter. View PDF.
Topics include Artist housing, The VID Gala, high cost of blood donations, Sidewalk conditions, JFK Assassination, Greenwich Village Women’s House of Detention, District Leaders Reports written by Carol Greitzer and Ed Koch.

NAACP and VID Report of Real Estate Agents Testing Program, 1964. View PDF.
A report created Jointly by the NAACP Housing Committee and Village Independent Democrats Civil Rights Sub-Committee on Housing. This report tested and analyzed the extent to which housing discrimination existed in Greenwich Village.

Robert Kennedy for United States Senate 1964 Booklet. View entire document as PDF.

Village Independent Democrats press release about collecting donations to give to civil rights workers  who are participating Council of Federated Organizations Mississippi Project, 1964. View PDF.

1964 Images

Images Taken at Food Drive

  • (top to bottom) Ed Gold, Ed Koch, Sarah Schoenkopf, Mary Jean, and Miriam Bockman, 1964. View JPG.
  • (l. to r.) Sarah Schoenkopf and  Mary Jean Chilcote 1964. View JPG.


Correspondence Related to Increasing Social Security Benefits. View PDF.

  • Page 1: May 17th, 1967 Letter to H. Gerson from Senator Jacob Javits in support of increasing Social Security Benefits
  • Page 2: September 28, 1967 Letter to Mr. Herman Gerson from Robert Kennedy about supporting an increase in Social Security benefits

December 20, 1967 List of Village Independent Democrats Officers, Elected Officials and Committee Members. View PDF.

Village Independent Democrats 11th Anniversary Dinner Program, April 30, 1967. View PDF.


Carol Greitzer Election for City Council Booklet. View entire document as a PDF.


Letter to Herman Greitzer from Robert Wagner about Lindsay in upcoming election, May 20, 1969. View PDF.

Program for Village Independent Democrats Annual Dinner, Monday May 26, 1969. View PDF.
Includes schedule, sponsors & seat assignments.

List of Village Independent Democrats, Officers, Elected Officials and Committee Members, June 1969. View PDF.